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How to Read and Study Effectively Applying SQ3R and PQR4 Formulae



Most reading methods are summarized as SQ3R. It is a thorough method of reading effectively according to F.P Robinson, Effective Study. New York, Harper and Bros. 1946.
Survey
  • To get the general content of the material.
Question
  • To help you find only what you want and ignore what you do not want.
Read
  • Read to gain knowledge and skills
  • Read searching for answers to questions already in your mind.
  • Read slowly making notes
Recite
  • Write down what you have read to see how much you have grasped.
Review
  • The Concepts, and terms used and relate it with what you know already.
Another formula that summarizes effective reading methods is PQR4. The formula is appreciated especially for people preparing for exams.
Preview
  • You review exams contents.
  • Familiarize with the structure of the exams.
  • The resources needed the day of exams.
  • Introductions
  • Learning objectives
Question
  • Turning headings and subheadings to formulate answer.
  • This helps a learner to predict kinds of question examiners may ask.
  • It also in mastering the content of the exams.
  • It helps in dealing questions that requires Application of the skills gained
Read
  • Read to gain knowledge and skills
  • Read searching for answers to questions already in your mind.
  • Read slowly making notes
Reflect
  • Think about what you have read.
  • Incorporate it with what you know already.
  • Relate it with you have read with practices
Recite
  • Read it to yourself aloud to hear it.
  • Write down what you have read to see how much you have grasped.
  • Find out how much vocabulary you can remember.
Review
  • The Concepts, and terms used.
  • Relate it with what you know already.
  • Link the new concepts with old ones
  • Always begin with the next study with a review of the old ones
As you skim and scan to find main idea within a passage in an article, a book, a newspaper magazine to get an overall impression of the contents you have selected to read, first make a survey of the information you want to get. Then question if it is the right information you are looking for. Read a sentence up to the end. Try to remember it and grasp amount of information it carries that is now reciting it, say it out without looking at the material judge yourself how much information you can remember and how long many words you have missed by still carries how many words you have missed by still carries full information.
Review information once more to correct what you missed before and now retain information as you proceed to read throughout the passage. While you survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review the attentive to the meaning the phrases, clauses words, and sentences used.
Skimming refers to the process of reading and funding the main Idea within a passage in a book to get an overall impression of content of the reading you have selected.
How to Skim
  • · Read first the Title
  • · Read introduction or the first paragraph.
  • · Read the first sentences of every other paragraph.
  • · Read any headings and subheadings, notices pictures, charts and graphs used keep an eye on Italicized, and bold types phrases.
  • · Read the summarized part of the last paragraph
Scanning
It is a reading technique used when you want to add specific information quickly. In scanning you have a question in your mind and when you read a passage so that it is easy to find the answer you are looking for, hence ignoring unrelated information.
How to scan to get the specific information you are looking for.
  • Anticipate how the answer will appear.
  • Find out points to help you locate the answer for example if you are looking for a city or dates you will quickly read paragraph looking for dates and names of cities.
  • Use heading and subheading to help you get the answer.
  • Read selectively and skip through section of the passages.
  • Run your eyes over the texts or information.
‘Effective means being able to read accurately and efficiently, understand much as much of a text as one needs in order to achieve one’s purpose’ Wrote Simon Greenall and Michael Swan in the book, Effective Reading, Teacher’s handbook, Cambridge University Press.1986
Why do people read?
  • To locate information
  • To clarify doubts in what they understand little about.
  • To learn what they do not know
  • To gain new knowledge
  • To entertain and enjoy themselves
References
Simon Greenall and Michael Swan in the book, Effective Reading, Teacher’s handbook, Cambridge University Press.1986
F.P Robinson, Effective Study. New York, Harper and Bros. 1946.
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